Tensioning Base


The perfect accessory to any of our Small Suture Pads, the Tensioning Base acts to hold your pad in place conforming it to a rounded surface to replicate life-like surface tension of an incision. After securing your pad to the base, once cut, the incision will “open up” allowing the student to gain realistic access to the lower muscle and fascia layers for deep suturing. The bottom of the base features a tacky rubber to prevent your Base from sliding across the table mid-suture.

Female right pelvis


This 3D printed specimen represents a female right pelvis, sectioned along the midsagittal

plane and transversely across the level of the L4 vertebrae and the proximal thigh. The

specimen has been dissected to demonstrate the deep structures of the true and false

pelves, the inferior anterior abdominal wall and inguinal region, femoral triangle and gluteal


Internal anatomy

The muscular boundaries of the inferior abdominal cavity are defined posterolaterally by

the quadratus lumborum, iliacus and psoas muscles; anteriorly by the (varyingly

exposed) external and internal abdominal oblique muscles, the transversus abdominis and

rectus abdominis. Inferiorly in the pelvic cavity, the obturator internus is visible traversing

through the lesser sciatic foramen inferior to the sacrospinous ligament. Fibres of coccygeus

merge with those of the sacrospinous ligament. Piriformis has been sectioned, with both

origin visible within the cavity (and part visible in the gluteal region).

The common iliac artery arises from its cut edge at the level of L5, bifurcating at the level of

the sacral promontory into the external and internal iliac arteries. The external iliac artery

crosses the pelvic brim to give off the deep circumflex iliac artery and inferior epigastric

artery before exiting the pelvis deep to the inguinal ligament. The internal iliac artery runs

posterolaterally, giving the iliolumbar artery posteriorly and lateral sacral arteries which

enter the anterior sacral foramina. A radicular artery entering the anterior foramina of the

coccyx can also be seen. Inferiorly, the superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery and

internal pudendal artery exit the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen. A branch

from the inferior gluteal artery, supplying psoas, travels anteriorly along the pectineal line.

Anteriorly, the umbilical artery gives off the superior vesical artery (supplying the bladder)

before terminating against the anterior abdominal wall as the medial umbilical

ligament. Posteriorly, the inferior vesical artery arises from the obturator artery before

exiting the pelvis through the obturator canal. The uterine artery crosses over the ureter to

enter the remnants of the broad ligament.

The major veins preserved are the inferior epigastric vein and deep circumflex iliac vein

draining into the external iliac vein, and the iliolumbar vein and lateral sacral vein draining

into the internal iliac vein. The external iliac vein and internal iliac vein unite to form the

right common iliac vein which, at the level of L5, joins the (cut edge) of the left common iliac

vein to become the inferior vena cava. Two veins pass horizontally across iliacus and

quadratus lumborum.

Of the peripheral nerve structures preserved in this specimen, the lateral femoral cutaneous

nerve passes laterally across the superficial aspect of the iliacus muscle and the femoral

nerve is visible deep to the psoas major muscle. The genitofemoral nerve lies on the

superficial surface of the psoas major, and the course of the genital branch entering the

deep inguinal ring and the femoral branch passing deep to the inguinal ligament can be

followed. The obturator nerve is also seen passing from deep to the psoas muscle anteriorly

to the obturator foramen. In the true pelvis the lumbosacral trunk crosses the pelvic brim

and joints the anterior ramus of S1. The S1-S3 anterior rami are visible and can be followed

as they pass through the greater sciatic foramen and enter the gluteal region.

In addition to the muscular and neurovascular structures, parts of pelvic viscera have been

preserved. Posterior to the pubic symphysis the median umbilical ligament extends

superiorly from the bladder to the anterior abdominal wall. The ureter descends anteriorly

to the psoas major muscle, across the iliac vessels, and beneath the uterine artery to enter

the posterior bladder wall. The urethra is seen passing downwards to its opening at the

urinary meatus, just posterior to the clitoris. Posterior to the bladder are the posthysterectomy

remnants of the uterus at the apex of the closed, superior end of the vagina.

Posterior to this part of the cut rectum, anal canal and anus are present. Some muscular

fibres of levator ani and the external anal sphincter can be seen in the ischioanal fossa just

posteriorly to the anal canal.

External anatomy

In the posterior view, most of the multifidus and origin of the gluteus maximus have been

removed over the lumbr and sacral region, and the laminae of L4 and L5 and the dorsal

sacrum have been sectioned to reveal the cauda equina in the vertebral and sacral canal.

The dura mater has been partially sectioned to expose the roots traversing the region,

including the passage of the sacral ventral rami through the ventral foramina. Laterally, a

large window into the gluteal maximus has been opened to expose the deeper structures of

the gluteal region. Part of the sectioned piriformis is visible in the greater sciatic foramen,

with the sciatic nerve (preserving an early division of the common peroneal and tibial nerves

within the gluteal region) surrounded by the superior and inferior gluteal arteries. The

sectioned internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve rest on the sacrotuberous ligament

as they descend towards the lesser sciatic foramen. Inferior to the sacrotuberous ligament

the obturator internus muscle (along with the superior and inferior gemelli muscles) passes

laterally deep to the common peroneal and tibial nerves. Inferior to these lateral rotators,

the quadratus femoris and common origin of the hamstring group are visible just proximal

to the remaining portion of the gluteus maximus.

In the anterior view, a window has been cut into the aponeurosis of the external oblique

aponeurosis to reveal part of the transversus abdominis muscle. The inguinal ligament can

be seen arising from the anterior superior iliac spine and extending towards the pubic

tubercle. Inferior to the inguinal ligament, the fascia lata has been removed over the

anterior thigh. The visible thigh muscles (from lateral to medial) on this specimen include

the tensor fasciae latae, and those of the anterior (sartorius, rectus femoris and the

iliopsoas) and medial (gracilis, pectineus [sectioned], obturator externus, adductor brevis,

adductor longus and adductor magnus).

Between these muscle groups the femoral sheath has been removed to expose the contents

of the femoral triangle (femoral artery and vein; sectioned to display the deeper adductor

muscle fibers) and the femoral nerve that have entered this region deep to the inguinal

ligament. In this individual the lateral circumflex femoral artery arises directly from the

femoral artery. Inferior to this, the deep femoral artery (profunda femoris) branches off.

Several anastomosing veins draining into the femoral vein surround the deep femoral

artery. The femoral vein preserves an opening on the medial side corresponding to the

drainage point of the great saphenous vein. The medial circumflex artery, posterior branch

of the obturator nerve and a muscular artery can be seen passing just superficial to

obturator externus. The anterior branch of the obturator nerve can be seen more anteriorly,

passing superficial to adductor magnus and deep to adductor longus.

The sectioned thigh of the specimen allows for orientation of muscles and neurovascular

structures in the proximal thigh. Other than the relations of anterior, medial and posterior

thigh muscles, perforating arteries and veins are visible near the adductor magnus; and the

common peroneal and tibial nerves are visible in the posterior compartment.


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